Kids also benefit from regular family time, which ideally takes place five times a week for at least 25 minutes and could take the form of a family meal, Pope said.
The contention that "research is unable to prove that homework improves student performance" is an overstatement, said Harris Cooper, a professor of psychology and neuroscience at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina, who has been researching homework and student performance for 30 years.
Even when looking at levels as early as second grade, studies have found that kids who study a little bit at home may do better on spelling, vocabulary and math tests given in the classroom, Cooper told Live Science. Rather than a no-homework policy for second graders, Cooper said he would recommend that homework for kids at this age be kept short and simple.
It should take no more than about 20 minutes a night for second graders to complete their homework, he said. That means first graders get 10 minutes of homework, second graders get 20 and so on.
But too much homework in second grade or assignments that are too hard can have a negative impact on young learners, Cooper said. Some parents who are extremely concerned about ensuring that their children achieve to their maximal ability may put pressure on educators, and this has led some teachers to assign students too much homework, especially at the high-school level, Cooper said. But the key is for students to get the right amount of homework — not too much of it and not too little — so that it can have positive effects on learning and school performance, Cooper said.
But other educators are steadfast that the right amount of homework in elementary school may be little to none. Research suggests that homework in elementary school does not have a positive effect on student achievement, and could even have a negative impact, said Etta Kralovec, an associate professor of teacher education at the University of Arizona South, and the author of "The End of Homework" Beacon Press, The findings are more complex in middle- and high-school students, with many studies finding a correlation between classroom grades and homework, Kralovec said.
But these results could also raise additional questions, because tracking students — separating them into lower-level and advanced-level classes, for example — also begins at these grades, and kids in the higher-track classes are often assigned more homework. It may not be that homework actually causes students to get better grades in high school or middle school, it could be that students who do more homework were better students to begin with, Kralovec said.
Lesson 1 - The Kinetic Molecular Theory: Lesson 2 - Pressure: Definition, Units, and Conversions. Lesson 3 - Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvins and Celsius. Lesson 4 - How to Find the Density of a Gas. Lesson 6 - The Boltzmann Distribution: Temperature and Kinetic Energy of Gases. Lesson 7 - Diffusion and Effusion: Lesson 8 - Molar Volume: Gas Pressure and Volume Relationship. Gas Volume and Temperature Relationship. Gas Pressure and Temperature Relationship.
Lesson 13 - Using the Ideal Gas Law: Lesson 14 - Real Gases: Deviation From the Ideal Gas Laws. Lesson 15 - Real Gases: Using the Van der Waals Equation. Lesson 16 - What is a Barometer? Lesson 17 - Inert Gas: Lesson 1 - The Atom. Lesson 2 - Atomic Number and Mass Number. Lesson 3 - Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan. Lesson 4 - Isotopes and Average Atomic Mass.
Lesson 6 - Atomic Structures: Lesson 7 - The Law of Conservation of Mass: Lesson 9 - Four Quantum Numbers: Lesson 10 - The de Broglie Hypothesis: Lesson 11 - Ionic Bonds: Lesson 13 - Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds: Lesson 15 - What Are Elements? Lesson 1 - The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods. Lesson 3 - Atomic and Ionic Radii: Lesson 4 - Ionization Energy: Lesson 5 - Electronegativity: Lesson 7 - Transition Metals vs. Lesson 8 - What is Antimony? Lesson 1 - Chemical Bonds I: Lesson 2 - Chemical Bonds II: Lesson 4 - Chemical Bonds IV: Lesson 6 - Ions: Predicting Formation, Charge, and Formulas of Ions.
Lesson 7 - Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties. Lesson 8 - Naming Ionic Compounds: Lesson 9 - Covalent Compounds: Lesson 10 - Lewis Structures: Lesson 11 - Lewis Dot Structures: Lesson 12 - Lewis Dot Structures: Lesson 13 - Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character.
Lesson 19 - Molecular Orbital Theory: Lesson 20 - Metallic Bonding: Lesson 22 - Organic Molecules: Alkanes, Alkenes, Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Isomers. Lesson 23 - Functional Groups in Organic Molecules. Lesson 24 - Characteristics of the Hypoiodite Ion. Lesson 25 - Dipole Moment: Lesson 1 - The Rate of Dissolution: Lesson 2 - Solutions, Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes. Lesson 3 - Solubility and Solubility Curves. Lesson 4 - Solubility of Common Salts: Lesson 5 - Calculating Molarity and Molality Concentration.
Lesson 6 - Calculating Dilution of Solutions. Lesson 3 - Mass-to-Mass Stoichiometric Calculations. Lesson 4 - Stoichiometry: Calculating Relative Quantities in a Gas or Solution. Lesson 8 - Hydrates: Lesson 1 - Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions. Lesson 4 - Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions. Lesson 5 - Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water. Lesson 6 - The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution. Lesson 8 - Coordination Chemistry: Bonding in Coordinated Compounds.
Lesson 9 - Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations. Lesson 12 - The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions. Lesson 13 - Electrochemical Cells and Electrochemistry. Lesson 15 - Writing and Balancing Combustion Reactions. Lesson 1 - The Photoelectric Effect:
Free elementary, middle and high school teacher resources, including puzzlemaker, student games and activities and lesson plans.
What does the science say about homework? get much homework, as it is in middle-school and high-school what children are learning at school, and help make Mom and Dad aware of their child.
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