The manner in which students communicate and interact with each other affects the way that the instructor interrelates with students in an OWC. However, these studies raise a number of questions: Additionally, data on faculty compensation specific to online writing courses—specifically regarding contingent faculty online salary compared to tenure-track faculty online salary and for-profit faculty online salary—would answer some of the questions raised above.
Course caps in online writing classes are closely tied to staffing and compensation issues in online writing classes. Investigation into course caps should be conducted to understand the relationship between course caps and online learning.
The annotations linked with Principle 9 could include more categorical data on ethical rationales for maintaining low course caps for OWCs.
Areas that need additional exploration include the effects of various class sizes on the online learning environment in an online writing class. Kelli Cargile Cook and Keith Grant-Davie present guidelines for evaluating students, peers, administrators, and instructors.
However, not only should procedures for assessment be a part of departmental or institutional policy, but also standards for who can conduct an assessment of both the OWC itself and the instructor should be developed and tested. In regard to Effective Practices 7. Further research on the success of these types of programs would be useful for university programs with high numbers of OWCs and contingent faculty. In addition to research on faculty development in general, research pertaining to where professional development resides—including who or what department or college runs the training as it relates to university structure and where funding comes from—would be constructive to help us understand not only the need for faculty professional development but also a need to situate that professional development in institutional structures.
The location of online professional development impacts the focus of that professional development. While national efforts for faculty equity recognize disparity in faculty development, Sue Doe and Mike Palmquist recognize the inadequate labor conditions of contingent faculty, including professional development opportunities for contingent faculty, are often limited or nonexistent at the local level.
More research on local conditions, particularly in relation to contingent faculty, is needed to fully understand these issues. Although research exists on program assessment, investigations that are more focused on online faculty assessment—including what WPAs can do to assist in evaluating faculty—can be expanded. Since more and more OWCs are being taught by contingent faculty, the question of who writes letters for promotion and evaluation purposes becomes more urgent.
Often, letters of evaluation for online faculty must come from faculty with equivalent or greater rank. In future editions of this annotated bibliography, research concerning centralized evaluation mechanisms such as but not limited to Quality Matters that factor in faculty expertise and rank should be included.
The research annotated herein overwhelmingly supports three conclusions: However, exploration and analysis as to procedural issues including how to offer training, who should offer training, and how online faculty are assessed and by whom could—and should—be considered and assessed in future research related to faculty and OWCs.
The faculty principles examined earlier discuss the fact that faculty should be supported in developing online writing courses. Yet despite this fact, little research instructs institutions on how instructional designers at the institutional-level and OWC instructors at the department-level negotiate the technology-centric ethos of instructional design with pedagogy-centric writing instructors. These institutional issues can further be complicated when many of the OWI programs heavily depend on itinerant faculty and these faculty have only limited opportunities for pedagogical training in OWI.
Also, because OWI courses can reside in different spaces in different colleges and universities, research in writing across the disciplines can be crucial in understanding how various disciplines and departments teach writing and set up tutoring opportunities for online students Hawisher and Pemberton, ; Hewett, ; Palmquist et al. Principle 11 challenges teachers to build online communities and foster student success. Because community and collaboration have been at the heart of the field of writing studies for many years, it is no surprise that the articles in this area are well researched and address issues of online community from a range of perspectives.
Other publications address the impact of technological interfaces on the power relations between OWC instructors and students Brady, ; Chan and Yap, ; Davis and Hardy, ; de Montes, ; Morton-Standish, ; and gender and race in the computer-enhanced and online classroom Faigley, ; Ferganchick-Neufang, ; Gerrard, ; Guglielmo, ; Hawisher and Selfe, ; McKee, ; Miyazoe and Anderson, ; Schneider, Suzanne P. Germann, ; Kynard, Side by side with the aforementioned factors related to student communities and success in online classes are issues of accessibility see Principle 1.
These issues include language competency in courses with non-native speakers of English, differentiated writing instruction e.
Amant , or—as Kirk St. Principle 12 addresses faculty satisfaction in online writing instruction from an institutional perspective, and a number of collections address the many facets of instructor satisfaction in online writing classes. Amant and Sapienza explore how such factors extend to the international in online environments. While the early scholarship addressing institutional issues concentrated on challenges of moving from face-to-face pedagogy to online delivery, later publications also address institutional issues solely centered around OWI pedagogy.
For instance, Bourelle et al. Certainly, these principles and publications have significant overlap with the Principles in the Instructional and Faculty sections as well.
The final two Principles in the Institutional section Principle 13 and Principle 14 deal with student support in general and online writing labs in particular. However, the publications categorized under the former principle have significant overlap with publications categorized under the latter given that online writing labs and online writing centers are also student support services..
Significant research remains to be done in this section—as with the previous section—on longitudinal issues related to developing and sustaining online student support services.
Drawing on research from outside of writing studies, particularly in relation to best practices involving institutional support for online faculty and students, will be a key to expanding our understanding of how writing studies programs and the institutions in which they are housed can work productively together to enhance and support quality online classes, programs, and writing centers.
Publications under this Principle include both qualitative and quantitative research into the experiences of faculty, students, and tutors in online writing classrooms and OWLs.
The most common research articles in this category are qualitative, particularly those that seek to investigate, in the words of Example Effective Practice Within the context of the entries that appear in this section, the research methodology most commonly used across these entries is the survey.
Included under survey research are: A number of studies sought the experience of ESL or L2 learners regarding a variety of online writing instruction tasks Chan and Yap, ; Wichadee, , and an additional set of survey research included writing tasks across the disciplines Pittenger and Olson-Kellogg, ; Schelly, ; Taffs and Holt, Other common research methodologies were textual analysis projects, including: In addition to these two qualitative methodologies, a number of publications used mixed-methods research Qiu et al.
Less frequent are quantitative and longitudinal research called for under Effective Practice A number of studies did employ quantitative, empirical methodologies Carpenter, Brown, and Hickman, ; Hewett, ; Hewett, ; Kargozari and Ghaemi, And, while not explicitly mentioned in the OWI Principles Statement, several articles studied or called for studies of usability Driscoll et al.
The entries in this bibliography clearly demonstrate a need for quantitative, empirical, replicable studies in online writing instruction in order to reinforce, perhaps, the need for clear course caps or the relationship between instructor preparation and student success. Also, this bibliography demonstrates the need for follow-up research in any number of areas, particularly in terms of program-level assessment, perhaps studies that follow up on pilot classes or online writing programs see Bourelle et al.
Each of the sections describe here contains entries that provide a rich summary of central resources that can guide research in a range of areas relating to OWI and to the teaching of and practices of writing in general. As such, the information in this bibliography can also help with as well as lead to a number of questions that could fruitfully be studied as a part of the next wave of research into online writing instruction.
To this end, this introduction concludes with a summary of some of the questions readers might wish to explore and in so doing, expand upon and contribute to the entries that appear in this overall work. No resource of this magnitude can include every published text on a single issue or topic. As this bibliography is revised and updated, additional sources will be added that are overlooked in this initial text, possibly from before and certainly beyond Compiling this resource raises questions about where we as researchers, scholars, and teachers should go next in studying and teaching OWI.
Although OWI has been with us for at least a quarter of a century in various degrees and digital forms, large, cross-institutional studies of OWI have been limited to surveys looking into the overall condition of the field. One relatively unexplored area as of the first edition of this bibliography is the impact of mobile technologies on online writing classes. A number of scholars have begun to explore how the ubiquitous nature of mobile technologies will shift the shape of online writing instruction Bjork and Schwartz, ; Hoven and Palalas, ; Johnson-Eilola and Selber, ; Kimme Hea, ; and Rodrigo, These scholars, much like those who identified the original growing pains involved with moving face-to-face content into cyberspace, are the leading edge of where we as a field may be going as we close out the second decade of the 21th century.
As we mine these publications for new connections, we might keep in mind the following questions for future research grouped by the sections discussed in this introduction. Accessibility in Online Writing Instruction. Instructional Principles in Online Writing Instruction.
Faculty Issues in Online Writing Instruction. Institutional Principles in Online Writing Instruction. Research and Exploration in Online Writing Instruction. Of course, this is a partial list of questions, just as the annotated bibliography itself can never capture every source that relates to online writing instruction.
However, as a field, this annotated bibliography can help us shape our focus as we move through the 21st century and deal with the increasing complications of higher education, including issues of accessibility, budgetary constraints, contingent faculty, unprepared or underprepared students, and the demands of constantly evolving technology.
We look forward to adding to and shaping the next version of this bibliography and the next 25 years of research in online writing instruction. This work was a labor of love and could not have been completed without the generous time, expertise, and advice of many individuals. We would like to thank Sarah Ricard who went above and beyond the call of duty in editing, re-editing, and changing the citations on this document TWICE! Thanks to Michael Greer for his help, guidance, and support in the final stages of getting this annotated bibliography to press.
Thanks also to Amy Rhea and Erica Ivy helped in editing the document and citations. She really likes the class. We are very thankful for your services.
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