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Step 6: Research Outline

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❶It can still be a good idea to start with this outline level, however, since you can use it to provide yourself with a general direction for your paper and expand upon it as the information flows in. Try to use a minimum of five sources to vary your information; never rely on only sources.

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These are articles or books written by experts in your field of interest, whose work has been read and vouched for by other experts in the same field. These can be found in scientific journals or via an online search. Take a trip to your local library or university library. Although it may seem old fashioned, libraries are chock full of helpful research materials from books to newspapers and magazines to journals. Typically, websites that end with. That is because these websites belong to schools, the government, or organizations dealing with your topic.

Try changing your search query often to find different search results for your topic. There are special search engines and academic databases available that search through thousands of peer-reviewed or scientifically published journals, magazines, and books. Look for databases that cover your subject only. For example, PsycINFO is an academic database that holds nothing but works done by authors in the field of psychology and sociology.

This will help you to get more tailored results than a very general search would. Take advantage of this ability to ask for specific information by using as many of the query boxes as you can. Visit your school library and ask the librarian for a full list of the academic databases they subscribe to, as well as the passwords for each. Get creative with your research.

This should contain many more books and journals that are about your topic as well. This step is very important: Make marks on anything that you think might be remotely important or that could be put to use in your paper.

As you mark off important pieces in the research, add your own commentary and notes explaining to yourself where you might use it in your paper. Writing down your ideas as you have them will make writing your paper much easier and give you something to refer back to. Annotating your research can take quite a bit of time, but needs to be taken one step further in order to add a bit more clarity for the outlining process.

Organize your notes by collecting all of your highlighted phrases and ideas into categories based on topic. For example, if you are writing a paper analyzing a famous work of literature, you could organize your research into a list of notes on the characters, a list of references to certain points in the plot, a list of symbols the author presents, et cetera.

Try writing each quote or item that you marked onto an individual note card. That way, you can rearrange and lay out your cards however you would like. Color code your notes to make it easier. Write down a list of all the notes you are using from each individual resource, and then highlight each category of information in a different color. For example, write everything from a particular book or journal on a single sheet of paper in order to consolidate the notes, and then everything that is related to characters highlight in green, everything related to the plot mark in orange, et cetera.

As you go through your notes, mark down the author, page number, title, and publishing information for each resource. This will come in handy when you craft your bibliography or works cited page later in the game. Identify the goal of the paper. Generally, speaking, there are two types of research paper: Each requires a slightly different focus and writing style which should be identified prior to starting a rough draft.

An argumentative research paper takes a position on a contentious issue and argues for one point of view. The issue should be debatable with a logical counter argument. An analytic research paper offers a fresh look at an important issue. The subject may not be controversial, but you must attempt to persuade your audience that your ideas have merit.

This is not simply a regurgitation of ideas from your research, but an offering of your own unique ideas based on what you have learned through research. Who would be reading this paper, should it be published?

Although you want to write for your professor or other superior, it is important that the tone and focus of your paper reflect the audience who will be reading it. The thesis statement is a sentence statement at the beginning of your paper that states the main goal or argument of your paper. Although you can alter the wording of your thesis statement for the final draft later, coming up with the main goal of your essay must be done in the beginning.

All of your body paragraphs and information will revolve around your thesis, so make sure that you are clear on what your thesis is. What is the primary question or hypothesis that you are going to go about proving in your paper? Your thesis should express the main idea of your paper without listing all of your reasons or outline your entire paper. Determine your main points. The body of your essay will revolve around the ideas that you judge to be most important.

Go through your research and annotations to determine what points are the most pivotal in your argument or presentation of information.

What ideas can you write whole paragraphs about? Which ideas to you have plenty of firm facts and research to back with evidence? Write your main points down on paper, and then organize the related research under each. When you outline your main ideas, putting them in a specific order is important.

Place your strongest points at the beginning and end of your essay, with more mediocre points placed in the middle or near the end of your essay. Main ideas can be spread out over as many paragraphs as you deem necessary.

Depending on your paper rubric, class guidelines, or formatting guidelines, you may have to organize your paper in a specific way. For example, when writing in APA format you must organize your paper by headings including the introduction, methods, results, and discussion.

These guidelines will alter the way you craft your outline and final paper. With the aforementioned tips taken into consideration, organize your entire outline. Justify main points to the left, and indent subsections and notes from your research below each. The outline should be an overview of your entire paper in bullet points. Write your body paragraphs. When outlining your paper, you will also have a chance to improve upon your writing and editing skills. Outlining not only inspires you to think more intensively about your topic, it can also help you develop and plan for the course of your paper.

Once you have worked through your outline, you will be able to tell with greater certainty if your argument is compelling and solvent, or if further work is needed to flesh out your ideas.

A properly done outline can also help prevent you from going off on tangents or writing incomplete paragraphs and sentences. Essentially, an outline will spare you from time-consuming mistakes and allow you to focus your energy on crafting a compelling, eloquent and educational research paper. Outlines are an effective tool to make sure your paper follows a logical progression. Before you write your outline, you will also need to spend a significant amount of time on the preparational aspects of your assignment.

Some of the principal activities in that department will include the brainstorming of ideas, the collection of notes and the separating of primary and secondary ideas into organized groups. Once you are ready to write your first outline, the easiest approach could be to start with a high Roman numeral level for all the main concepts and then add secondary levels letters to account for all the details. With the introduction, you put the topic of your paper into context for your audience.

If you were to write a paper about involuntary celibacy incel among men, you would introduce the topic by a defining the problem in one line, b specifying the segment of men affected by this problem and c mentioning the words and phrases that constantly apply to this topic, like beta male and incel. The thesis will state the purpose of your research with either a stance or an observation.

This sentence is the culmination of your introduction, and the text that follows will explore and challenge the idea put forth in this sentence. A thesis on the topic of incels could summarize the rise and prevalence of this problem and what society as a whole, and women in particular, could do to make things better for these men. Now that the topic and purpose of your paper has been clearly laid out for the reader, you should follow that up with background information.

In this section, you could provide estimates on the current number of people affected by the problem in question, or you could compare the present day state of things in this regard with earlier times. This should also be the section where you indicate how your research will add to the overall discussion on your chosen topic. On the topic of male involuntary celibacy, you could talk about whether the problem has escalated proportionately in other countries over the last few decades or if it has mostly been confined to the United States.

If your research leads you to the latter conclusion, you could offer some general ideas of why things have turned out that way. The major points in a research paper are the key elements that support your thesis. Each of your major points should move your paper from strength to strength, adding up to a body of solid evidence that supports your stance on the topic at hand.

With every major point, there should be a claim that ties in with the principle argument of your thesis. One major point to address would be the social anxieties suffered by male incels.

Here, you could talk about how incels—some of whom are handsome, well-groomed and financially successful—will have typically struggled, unsuccessfully, to overcome their awkwardness and interact with women.

This would be the point where you would clarify that involuntary celibacy is rooted in problems far deeper than mere shyness. Each major point should be supported with one or two minor points. The outline for a Literary Essay will also help you. Anyway, the main parts are as follows:. Seems not that hard, right?! But the fact is that each of the points encompasses a wide range of information for you to arrange in your research outline about animals, for example.

The Introduction part is one of the most important ones. Here you are supposed to mention the top essential components like the thesis statement, the explanation of the topic some major points, general information , explanation of the core terms related to your study.

The Body part is the amplest one and consists of several paragraphs or subparts. Here you bring the arguments to support your statement. The methodology is what follows the introduction section. It gives the insight into the way you carried out the research and should include the investigation type and the questionnaire you have fulfilled. Never forget about the aims of the investigation that should be also stated in the introduction.

Make sure to include the literature overview. Here mention the literature you used as a backup to your hypothesis and theories. This part will show how you can operate the terms, theory and existing evidence.

Your main theme and the chosen literature should be adjacent. Demonstrate how your input develops and distends the existing works. Data and analysis usually go after methods and literature.

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Research Paper Outline Examples Once you've decided what topic you will be writing about, the next thing you should pay attention to is the scope of your paper .

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But how to write a research paper outline? By preliminarily splitting your paper into all its constituent parts you will be far more organized and will not worry that you forgot something. In addition, looking at your outline, you will be calmer because after splitting your work into several parts. Hire a writer to help you come up with.

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Aug 23,  · Writing an outline for a research paper can seem like a time consuming task, and you may not understand the value of it if you have never written one before. Outlines can help you structure your research and your final paper in much more efficient ways, though, so it 77%(62). Looking for help on how to write a research paper outline? This guide explains how to format, structure, and write a research outline.

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